What are the Mysteries of Lake Mungo? Case Study Overview There are many mysteries associated with the famous Lake Mungo archaeological site in southern NSW that will help students to explore important issues about ancient Australian history. Some of these are: How old are the Lake Mungo people and how do we know? Why were Mungo Lady and Mungo Man buried in these ways? What was life at Lake Mungo like? What should be done with the Lake Mungo human remains?
Traditional Aboriginal Painting Methods Contemporary Aboriginal artists use a considerable variety of materials and techniques in painting. Some of these materials are rooted strongly in tradition – such as the use of ochres in the Kimberley and, to a lesser extent, ochres on bark from Arnhem Land. Other artists have adopted modern media and work with acrylic paints on canvas, gouache or ochres on archival paper or other surfaces. Apart from the materials used, Aboriginal artists have shown considerable innovation in the techniques they adopt for applying paint and creating designs – ranging from the crushed end of a stick, as used for example by Emily Kame Kngwarreye in some works to produce characteristic large smudged dots, to the fine brushes used to produce the delicate rarrk patterns of Arnhem Land art.
The traditional method of painting a shield in north east Queensland was for two men to work at opposite ends using lawyer-cane brushes.
Investigating various dating methods and their reliability in relation to Lake Mungo remains Focus Question 5: How were lunettes formed? Understanding why .
Not for the first time , the Liberal Democrat crossbencher, Senator David Leyonhjelm, has expressed scepticism about the idea that Aboriginal people are the first Australians. Some anthropologists have suggested different cultures once existed in the Kimberley as in the study referred to here. Nobody knows for sure when the people who painted this unique rock art first arrived.
The oldest known human remains found in Australia, Mungo Man, were found not to be related to modern day Aborigines in at least one study. So, does research show that the first people to live in Australia were different from Aboriginal people? And is there disagreement among anthropologists on this question? The evidence on skeletons In one sense, Leyonhjelm is correct.
There have been a handful of anthropologists who have argued that Aboriginal people were not the first Australians, but the way science proceeds is that ideas are constantly questioned, tested and replaced. Some researchers once argued that there may have been three separate population migrations into Australia. Later, other researchers argued there were two.
More recently, researchers have assessed the earlier work and argued there was only one source population of all known skeletal remains in Australia. Famously, one early study compared Australian remains to very early ones from Java but as more remains were uncovered, and as methods for comparison improved, that claim was dismissed and is no longer held by most people working in the field. These claims, from a study , are not widely accepted in the anthropological community, and not even really debated any more.
The DNA study was a very early attempt to extract DNA from an ancient skeleton in conditions that could be expected to be very bad for the survival of ancient DNA.
Lake Mungo remains
Settlements were subsequently established in Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland , the Northern Territory , Western Australia , and South Australia Australia was the exception to British imperial colonization practices, in that no treaty was drawn up setting out terms of agreement between the settlers and native proprietors, as was the case in North America, and New Zealand. In the 19th century, smallpox was the principal cause of Aboriginal deaths, and vaccinations of the “native inhabitants” had begun in earnest by the s.
The cause of the outbreak is disputed. Some scholars have attributed it to European settlers,   but it is also argued that Macassan fishermen from South Sulawesi and nearby islands may have introduced smallpox to Australia before the arrival of Europeans.
The Pleistocene Coalition is a group of researchers challenging the tenets of mainstream scientific agendas which are promoted despite empirical data to the contrary. Pleistocene Coalition News.
Piri Reis map of Antarctica — Antarctica ice free! Posted on by AD Admin In , a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. His passion was cartography. Piri Reis high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have a privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople.
The Turkish admiral admits, in a series of notes on the map, that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of source maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling however is not so much how the Piri Reis Antarctica map managed to so accurate years before it was discovered, but that the map shows the real coastline under the ice.
Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is BC. On 6th July the U. Air Force responded to Prof. Hapgood of Keene College, specifically to his request for an evaluation of the ancient Piri Reis Map: Hapgood, Keene College Dear Professor Hapgood, Your request of evaluation of certain unusual features of the Piri Reis Antarctica map of by this organization has been reviewed..
We find that this is the most logical and in all probability the correct interpretation of the map.
Lake mungo dating methods. Lake Mungo remains.
Dating the Past is a complex area of science that continues to advance. All dating methods have shortcomings and degrees of inaccuracy, and the age of Mungo Lady and Mungo Man has been controversial from the beginning. Before the remains were discovered, scientists thought that Aboriginal people had been in Australia for perhaps 20, years, while many Aboriginal people saw themselves as being here forever.
Early estimates of the age of Mungo Man ranged from 28, years to 32, years. Then in new methods estimated Mungo Man to have lived some 62, years ago, a radical conclusion that was at odds with what was known about human migration across the globe.
Disclosure statement. Iain Davidson has received funding in the past from the ARC, AINSE and the Australian Heritage Commission. Michael Westaway receives .
Bradshaws now called Gwion art are among the most sophicated forms of cave painting in Australia. Introduction Australian Aboriginal rock art may be the oldest Stone Age art on the planet. This possibility is supported by the studies of Professor Stephen Oppenheimer, whose research combines genetic analysis with climatology, archeology, fossil analysis and modern dating methods, in order to juxtapose early migration with early rock art , see for example his book “Out of Eden: According to Oppenheimer, modern humans first began arriving in Australia from islands across the Timor Sea during the Middle Paleolithic era, between 70, and 60, BCE.
Evidence of the ancient art if any of this first wave of aboriginal settlers is extremely scarce, but there are signs of pigment usage which suggest that they began painting almost immediately, although this might have been face or body painting rather than rock painting. In any event, human occupation in Australia has been carbon-dated to at least 53, BCE, and the oldest Australian human fossil has been dated to around 38, BCE – the difference probably being due to the drowning of the earliest coastal occupation sites by rising sea-levels: All this means that aboriginal migrants were settled in Australia some 10, years before their northern counterparts arrived in Europe.
So we may yet discover that Paleolithic art in Australia predates the cave art in Europe by a similar margin. Other, possibly even older examples of prehistoric art cupules have been discovered in the granite rock shelter of Turtle Rock, Northern Queensland, and in the dark limestone caves of southern Australia. Australian Aborigine artists have continued to practice their traditional arts and crafts into the modern era, creating in the process a unique and unbroken record of artistic expression.
Unfortunately, over time, some aboriginal caves and rock shelters have become saturated with superimposed imagery as well as artifacts from a great many occupations. As a result, even though Australia is home to more petroglyphs and pictographs than any other country in the world, the sheer number of these cave paintings and rock engravings places a heavy burden on the country’s limited archeological resources. The recent dating of Sulawesi Cave art Indonesia to 37, BCE represents a major archeological discovery, with huge potential for ancient sites in Australia.
Lake Mungo remains
Sources of variation in the steady magnetic field Secular variation of the main field The main magnetic field of the Earth , as observed at the surface, changes continuously with time. Changes of very short duration compared with geologic processes are called secular variation. The characteristics of the secular variation are often represented by superimposing maps of the rate of change of a given field component on maps of the component itself.
Lake Mungo was an amazing place with lush, green flora and good food called megafauna. Beasts such as the Procoptodon, a short-faced, giant kangaroo and Genyornis, a very stout flightless bird roamed the lunette. Life at Lake Mungo was good, everyone was happy and content.
Scientific dating has confirmed the long residence of Aboriginal people in Australia. A number of methods are used, all of which have their advantages, limitations and level of accuracy. Complex dating problems often use a variety of techniques and information to arrive at the best answer. Artefacts and other materials can be dated in relative terms by observing which layer of sediments they are found in.
This applies the geological principle that under normal circumstances younger layers of sediment will be deposited on top of older layers. This ‘law of superimposition’ works in the well-defined layers of the Willandra lunettes , but only dates objects as younger or older than adjacent layers. To determine the year age absolute age of an object, a number of chemical and radioactive techniques can be used. Four main methods have been used in Willandra archaeology.
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Geology[ edit ] The shore of Lake Mungo. Landsat 7 imagery of Lake Mungo. The white line defining the eastern shore of the lake is the sand dune, or lunette, where most archaeological material has been found Lake Mungo is a dry lake located in south-eastern Australia, in the south-western portion of New South Wales.
Sediments at Lake Mungo have been deposited over more than , years. There are three distinct layers of sands and soil forming the Walls[ clarification needed – Unclear, single-use term].
Lake Mungo is a dry lake located in south-eastern Australia, in the south-western portion of New South Wales. It is about kilometres ( mi) due west of Sydney and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north-east of Mildura, and km north-west of Balranald.
In February , scientists announced that a new suite of tests shows Mungo Man died 40, years ago, not 62, years as other scientists had claimed based on different dating tests. Both dates contradict the earliest carbon dating results on the ancient remains. But there is a good reason. It all centres on the discovery of human remains in sand dunes surrounding ancient Lake Mungo—now a dry, flat plain, vegetated by scraggly salt-tolerant bushes and grasses.
The first major find, in , was of crushed and burnt skeletal fragments, interpreted to be of a female called Lake Mungo 1, or more affectionately Mungo Woman. Carbon dating see Dating methods on bone apatite the hard bone material yielded an age of 19, years and on collagen soft tissue gave 24, years. This meant that the skeleton, buried slightly lower than the charcoal, must have been older. At 26, years, Mungo Woman was nearly twice as old as the previous oldest date for Aboriginal settlement of Australia, and possibly the earliest human cremation in the world.
Then, in , Bowler and Thorne found a skeleton sprinkled with powdered red ochre in a grave only metres away.
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Silcretes are very hard layers of silica-enriched materials formed beneath the surface in soils, unconsolidated sediments, and permeable rocks. Painting of life at Lake Mungo by Giovanni Caselli. Note the fish traps, the wide variety of food hunted and collected, and the gunyahs or dwellings. The ancestral aboriginal tribes of the Mungo Lakes system are the Paakantyi to the west of the lakes, Mutthi Mutthi to the south, and the Ngiyaampaa to the north.
Another tribal group, the Yita Yita, also once lived to the east of the lakes. Many Mutthi Mutthi people have Yita Yita ancestry.
The Extinction of Australian Megafauna. When humans first arrived in Australia around 60, years ago, they found a continent covered in rainforest, much of which had existed for million years.
The Extinction of Australian Megafauna When humans first arrived in Australia around 60, years ago, they found a continent covered in rainforest, much of which had existed for million years. In addition to rainforest, the continent was populated by megafauna that included the Diprotodon, a wombat-like marsupial the size of a car and the Megalania, a crocodile sized lizard that hunted on land.
In most of the western world, it has been common to blame humans for hunting megafauna on other continents to extinction. In Australia, however, dominant ideologies propose that humans were in harmony with the landscape. Consequently, the extinction of the megafauna tends to be explained in ways that preserve these ideologies. For example, in David Bowman, an ecology expert from Charles Darwin University, argued that humans did not have the population density or the technology to efficiently wipe out megafauna.
Whether the last animal dies as a result of a spear or disease is irrelevant because it was over hunting the caused population decline. By Bowman’s logic, colonists should not have been able to kill off Tasmanian Tigers because as their numbers got low, hunting them would have been too much effort. As an alternative to the over-hunting theory, Bowman proposed that the megafauna were wiped out by climactic changes that humans did their best to prevent with fire management.
The dating game
They were found in by James Bowler with the University of Melbourne. Reconstruction and study of the remains was mainly done by Alan Thorne at the Australian National University. The patterns of burn marks on the bones suggest that the body was first burned, then smashed, then burned a second time, before being buried. Optical dating concluded that both LM1 and LM3 were buried around 40, years ago plus or minus 2, years. LM1 is now in a locked vault at the Mungo National Park visitor centre.
The body was covered with red ochre , in the earliest known example of such a complicated and artistic burial practice.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which.
The period lasted roughly 3. Stone Age artifacts include tools used by humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Bone tools were used during this period as well, but are more rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use. The Stone Age is the first of the three-age system of archaeology , which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: The Stone Age The Iron Age Historical significance The Stone Age is nearly contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo, the only exception possibly being at the very beginning, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools.
According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System, especially toward the north in Ethiopia , where it is bordered by grasslands. The closest relative among the other living Primates, the genus Pan , represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest, where the primates evolved. The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and also north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia.
Starting from about 3 mya a single biome established itself from South Africa through the rift, North Africa, and across Asia to modern China, which has been called “transcontinental ‘savannahstan"” recently. Starting in the grasslands of the rift, Homo erectus , the predecessor of modern humans, found an ecological niche as a tool-maker and developed a dependence on it, becoming a “tool equipped savanna dweller.
Discovered by an international team led by Shannon McPherron, they are the oldest evidence of stone tool use ever found anywhere in the world. The oldest known stone tools have been excavated from several sites at Gona, Ethiopia , on the sediments of the paleo- Awash River , which serve to date them. All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity, or missing layer, which would have been from 2.